Absorption of medicines and food

The absorption of drugs and food investigates whether the food components influence the absorption of drugs in the digestive system.

Orally administered medications may be in solid (powder, dragees, tablets, capsules) or liquid form (solutions, extracts, infusions, tinctures, syrups). Medicinal products administered in liquid form are absorbed the fastest and the solid release depends on the rate at which the capsule shell (capsules) dissolves or are released (tablets) and absorbed into lymph fluid or blood.

The absorption rate of drugs depends on various environmental factors, such as the shape of the medicinal substance and the response of the environment. The best place for intake of drugs is the small intestine and depends on the degree of ionization and fat solubility of the drug substance.

Depending on the shape and size of the medicine, it is transported appropriately into the body and further into the bloodstream. Transport is also supported by suitable compounds and substances that are secreted by the human body (receptors, carriers). It depends heavily on the permeability of the intestine.

The extent of drug absorption may vary according to age and physiological status in different population groups. Therefore, you should follow the instructions and also study the prescription for the medicine you are taking.

Absorption of medicines and food – reduction

  • the presence of food in the stomach and the adsorption of certain drugs on its surface. in.: Antibiotics such as cloxacillin, amoxicillin and oxacillin (it is recommended to take them for 1-2 hours before or after food)
  • Adsorption of the drug by macromolecular substances such as fiber, pectins, protein (caseinates) – medications: amoxicillin, tricyclic antidepressants (amitiptyline), paracetamol, digoxin, lovastatin, phenytoin (it is recommended to take them 2 hours before or after a meal). and avoid limiting or limiting the amounts of these nutrients)
  • Complex of medicinal substances by minerals such as calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron form difficult to absorb complexes with tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, bisphosphonates and antacids in the stomach. Consumption of: Milk and dairy products, chocolate and nuts with high calcium and/or magnesium content
  • Competitiveness of intake of food components compared to medicines, e.g. protein diet and levodopa
  • Reaction of gastrointestinal fluids
  • Impaired gastrointestinal motility
  • Reduced absorption of lipophilic medicinal products on a low-fat diet

Absorption of medicines and food

Many medicinal substances are bound to the components of food, mostly protein or fat.

Drugs such as warfarin, furosemide, ibuprofen, naproxen, thyroxine, diazepam, amitriptyline are bound to proteins.

Food components may also influence the biotransformation of medications taken.

The metabolism of medicinal products is also affected by the content of substances or compounds that are contaminated with food (anti-nutrient and harmful to health), as well as by nitrate residues, e.g. when grilling or smoking.

Medicines and food – alcohol

Consumption has a multi-pronged effect, both on the function of the organs involved in the metabolism and absorption of medicines, as well as on the metabolism and absorption of medicines and their survival in the digestive system.

Effect of medications on nutritional status and some side effects

  • Change in the passage time of nutrients through the digestive tract
  • Change in intestinal peristalsis
  • Changes in the pH of the gastrointestinal tract, sometimes causing the absorption of
  • Weakening the activity of digestive enzymes
  • Limitation of bile acid secretion

Some medications, especially steroid strain can negatively affect the nutritional status due to excessive accumulation of body fat, which contributes to weight gain.

Medicines that cause weight gain include antiepileptics, certain antibiotics and other antiviral medicines, cancer medicines, contraceptives, hormones, antidiabetics and psychopharmaceuticals.

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