Anaemia is a major health and social problem. He shouldn’t be underestimated. If left untreated, it can have many complications, like many other diseases. Anemia (anemia) deals with hematology, the medical field that deals with diseases of the hematopoietic system.

According to the WHO, it affects up to 25% of the world’s population. Risk groups include, in particular, infants, women of childbearing age, pregnant women, the elderly and people who eat alternative foods (e.g. vegetarians).

Anaemia is a decrease in haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Ht) and erythrocyte counts in the blood, which are below normal values for age, gender and physiological condition. This leads to a decrease in the total ability of the erythrocytes to transport oxygen and related oxidation disorders in the body tissue.

The reasons for this may be acute or chronic bleeding, haemolysis (degradation of erythrocytes) or reduced or disturbed erythropoiesis in the bone marrow.

The risk factor is also the occurrence of nutritional deficiencies, metabolism and absorption disorders or a chronic disease that hinders the intake and absorption of nutrients (e.g. cancer, chronic inflammation).

Anemia – symptoms

The most frequently mentioned symptoms of anemia include:

  • bad mood
  • getting tired easily
  • attention deficit disorder
  • shortness of breath, shortness of breath or “feeling short of breath” during physical activity
  • increase in heart rate
  • pallor of the eyelids and mucous membranes

Types of anemia

  • iron deficiency anemia

With too little iron in the body, heme synthesis is impaired and erythrocytes are formed that are smaller than normal and contain less hemoglobin.

  • megaloblastic anemia

It is caused by a deficiency in the body of vitamin B12 or folic acid. It is characterized by macrocytic erythrocytes (large volume of blood cells), anisocytases (red blood cells of various sizes) or poikilocytases (cells of various shapes).

It is the result of impaired production of erythroblasts, their premature destruction in the bone marrow and shortening the survival time of abnormal erythrocytes in the blood.

The most common cause of anemia due to vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency is not the deficiency in food itself, but the inability to absorb it in the digestive tract, as in the case of pernicious anemia.

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