Appetite or hunger

Appetite or hunger, drives us in the choice of foods and meals? What processes take place in our bodies to regulate food intake? I will try to answer these questions;)

The regulation of food intake is a complex neurophysiological and hormonal phenomenon closely associated with physiological sensations such as hunger/thirst, saturation, saturation and appetite.

Appetite is the psychological desire to eat a certain food, and hunger is a physiological feeling of lack of satiety and a need to replenish energy for the body.

The mechanisms of regulation and control of food intake are influenced by a number of factors, both external (environmental, socio-cultural, lifestyle and emotions) and internal (metabolic and hormonal signals). The command center of regulation is the hypothalamus, more precisely the hypothalamus.

Appetite or hunger – a mechanism for regulating food intake

What is the mechanism for regulating food intake? Hormones are a source of information about the saturation and hunger status of the body. This information is transmitted via receptors to the brain, where the corresponding neurons collect information and forward it to the appropriate hunger/saturation centers.

The hunger centre is located in the lateral hypothalamus and the saturation centre is located in the ventromedial testis of the hypothalamus. The neurons that stimulate the hunger center are called oroxygen. Neurons that stimulate the saturation center are antideoxygen.

Structures associated with the control of food intake are also:

  • Core of the solita strand, which is one of the most important sensory centers of the brain stem (signals from taste receptors)
  • The mesolimbic dopamine system or reward system generates signals that are associated with the appetite and rewarding effect of food.

Physiological mechanisms for regulating food intake include motor signals (stomach volume), hormonal signals, metabolic signals (changes in blood levels of glucose, amino acids and free fatty acids) and thermal signals.

Depending on the type of signal that flows into the hypothalamic regulatory center of food intake, it can be either short-term (neural and hormonal signals – senses, cholecystokinin, ghrelin and others) or long-term (amino acids, glucose and free fatty acids, leptin and insulin).

Appetite and hunger – satiation, satiation

The state of saturation begins when the amount of food ingested meets the body’s energy needs for a certain period of time.

Saturation is a physiological feeling that occurs after eating. It is associated with reaching a state of full saturation and a pleasant feeling of fullness in the stomach to prevent the feeling of hunger from returning for a certain time.

The duration and intensity of the feeling of fullness vary and depend on many factors, including individual appetite control mechanisms and satiating food. The saturation power of a food depends on the physicochemical properties and nutritional value of the food.

The saturating capacity of the nutrients is in descending order: Protein>Carbohydrates (including fiber) >Fats.

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