Everything is stored in the genes. You’ve probably heard the saying before. Nothing more wrong. In this article, I want to introduce you to a field of dietetics, such as nutrigenetics, which deals with nutrition based on our genome.

Nutrigenetics – a pioneering method for the prevention of diseases of civilization and their dietary therapy. It is a field of science that deals with the role of the interaction between individual gene variants (genotype) and food constituents in relation to the impact on human health.

To determine the risk of disease, the genetic material is examined for mutations in the genetic code (genetic polymorphism).

Differences are made in the following areas: Nutrigenomics (the influence of food on the effect of genes), Proteomics (the effect of changes in gene expression on changes in protein biosynthesis) and Metabolomics (the above aspects on metabolism and the determination of metabolic changes in the body).

Our DNA contains information about our ability to absorb, metabolise, recycle and inherit nutrients, as well as the genes we inherit (e. g. the obesity or diabetes gene).

The most well-known polymorphisms related to food intake are the FTO gene, the MTHFR gene and CYP1A2. They correspond accordingly to disturbances in the control of food intake, DNA methylation -> hyperhomocysteinemia and caffeine metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

The most important thing in nutrigenetics is the fat metabolism. Fats affect gene expression. This is why the omega test is performed – the profile of fatty acids in the cell membranes, since fats are the main cause of obesity or diabetes.

Antioxidants, which are compounds in different forms and forms, are also important. Each of them has an enzyme that is responsible for activating them when the body needs them. The genes are also responsible for the function of the enzymes.

Information about hypersensitivity and intolerance to certain ingredients is also encoded in our DNA. This includes the metabolism of caffeine, alcohol, sodium, lactose, gluten, fructose and many other compounds.

Nutrigenetics – Genetic tests

Nutrigenetic tests determine polymorphisms that alter the need for vitamins and minerals and the lack of which favours the development of certain diseases. In addition, biochemical tests of the blood are often performed to saturate the body with vitamins and minerals.

The prices of the nutrigenetic tests available on the market range from PLN 200 to about PLN 3,000. The more complete the genetic profile, the more expensive the test. There is currently no financial support from the NFZ.


Based on a genetic test, it is easier for nutritionists to prepare a more effective personalized diet.

Nutritigenetics is not yet widespread. Few nutrition experts commit to include this option in their service offerings.

It’s being researched all the time. It is speculated that this is the most effective method to prevent diseases that are stored in the genes. It is recommended that infant studies be carried out in order to introduce an effective diet as soon as possible.

I think in 5 to 10 years this will be the best model/formula used by nutritionists as another branch of nutritional treatment. The genetic code determines our metabolism and disease risk.